An overview of urban housing policies in the process of moving the immigrant population in Canada

سال انتشار: 1402
نوع سند: مقاله کنفرانسی
زبان: انگلیسی
مشاهده: 45

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تاریخ نمایه سازی: 16 اردیبهشت 1403

چکیده مقاله:

According to the ۲۰۲۱ Canadian census, immigrants in Canada number ۸.۳ million persons and make up approximately ۲۳ percent of Canada's total population. This represents the eighth-largest immigrant population in the world, while the proportion represents one of the highest ratios for industrialized Western countries. Following Canada's confederation in ۱۸۶۷, immigration played an integral role in helping develop vast tracts of land. During this era, the Canadian Government would sponsor information campaigns and recruiters to encourage settlement in rural areas; however, this would primarily be only towards those of European and religious Christian backgrounds, while others—particularly Hindus, Buddhist, Shinto, Sikh, Muslim, and Jewish immigrants—as well as the poor, ill, and disabled, would be less than welcome. Following ۱۹۴۷, in the post-World War II period, Canadian domestic immigration law and policy went through significant changes, most notably with the Immigration Act, ۱۹۷۶, and the current Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) from ۲۰۰۲. The main drivers of population growth are immigration, driven mainly by economic policy and also family reunification. A record number of ۴۰۵,۰۰۰ immigrants were admitted to Canada in ۲۰۲۱, with plans to increase the annual intake of immigrants to ۵۰۰,۰۰۰ per year. New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas in the country, such as Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees, accounting for over ۱۰ percent of annual global refugee resettlements; it resettled more than ۲۸,۰۰۰ in ۲۰۱۸. Housing is a critical determinant of health and a basic human right. Historically, Canada’s housing policies have not been grounded in a human rights-based approach. In the ۱۹۹۰s, a policy shift prioritized efficiency in government spending and deficit reductions over the provision of many social programs including affordable housing. With various levels of government now acknowledging and recognizing the need for more affordable housing, it is important to understand tenant experiences, perspectives, and needs to ensure policies and practices are supporting individuals appropriately. In total, ۱۶۱ individuals participated in this study by completing online or in-person questionnaires. Exploratory analysis of results revealed that although there were some positive benefits to affordable housing, many tenants continued to struggle financially, physically, mentally, and emotionally without adequate supports in place. These findings highlight the need for affordable housing to be part of a system of care that provides supports along a continuum. The results further reiterate that placing a person or family in affordable housing does not guarantee that their lives have improved.


Samaneh Negahban

Master of Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tehran University of Art