Background: Respect for patients’ rights in medical centers is essential. It is sometimes overlooked due to the ignorance and negligence of the medical staff. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of Iranian medical students about patients’ rights and examine its underlying factors.Materials and Methods: In this systematic review, a search of online databases (Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, SID, CIVILICA, and Google Scholar search engine) was conducted for relevant studies with no time limit up to April ۲۰۲۲. Two reviewers evaluated the quality of eligible studies and carried out the selection procedure. The quality of the information was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale.Results: Finally, ۱۱ studies (n=۳,۲۰۸ medical students) were selected. The knowledge of patients’ rights in medical students was estimated as moderate (range: ۲۷.۷-۸۱.۱۶%). The mean score of students’ knowledge about patients’ rights was ۱۴.۹۵ ± ۲.۰۹ out of ۱۸ (moderate score). There was a statistically significant relationship between students’ knowledge of the Charter of Patients’ Rights and the variables of age, gender, degree, and field of study. These groups had the lowest level of knowledge: men, students over ۲۵ years, students between ۲۱ and ۲۲ years, and dental and emergency medical students (P <۰.۰۵). Students of the associate of science degree had the lowest score, and residency students had the highest score in patients’ rights awareness.Conclusion: Based on the findings, the level of knowledge of medical students about the Charter of Patients’ Rights was moderate. It is necessary to increase their awareness by developing educational plans for all medical students, especially dental, emergency, and male students.