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The public health effects of economic sanctions as a global concern in 21th century: Why the economic sanctions is a cruel strategy

عنوان مقاله: The public health effects of economic sanctions as a global concern in 21th century: Why the economic sanctions is a cruel strategy
شناسه (COI) مقاله: JR_JHPSH-2-1_003
منتشر شده در شماره 1 دوره 2 فصل زمستان در سال 1393
مشخصات نویسندگان مقاله:

Ali Mohammad Ahmadi - Assistant Professor, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
Mohammad Meskarpour-Amiri - PhD student in Health Economics, Health Economics Department, Health Management Research Center,Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences. PhD student in Health Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

خلاصه مقاله:
recent years, the use of economic sanctions has been developed as a popular foreign policy tool. Since the 20th century, economic sanctions were used against various countries like Cuba, Palestine (Gaza strip), Iraq, Iran, Syria and recently Russia. Although several studies have suggested that eco-nomic pressures do not often succeed in achieving their policy goals, but it’s effects on civilians health conditions can be significant (1-3).Economic sanctions can threaten the public health situation through limiting access to minimum basic needs especially in vulnerable groups such as the mothers and children of poor families. Adopting smart sanctions on medical equipments, pharma-ceutical and agricultural products could directly threaten the access to public health services (for example the 1960 U.S sanctions against Cuba) (4, 5). Also evidence have indicated that even general trade sanctions on none medical goods such as fuel and other raw materials used for water and elec-tricity supply systems have significant effects on public health situation in countries like Iraq (6). Such situations can increase maternal and infant mortality rates and can lead to the incidence of in-fectious diseases, especially among vulnerable groups. It is estimated that sanctions have been among the most important causes of at least 100,000 to 227,000 cases of child deaths during August 1991 to March 1998 in Iraq (7).Economic sanctions expected to affect public health more significantly in small and single product economies based on oil (5). In such countries, re-duction in oil sailing as result of sanctions can lead to reduction of government capacity to financing health care system and therefore increasing share of household in financing healthcare. Such circum-stances can reduce household’s financial access to health care to extent that they ignores some neces-sary health care services (8,9). Therefore even when sanctions is designed in a way that medical prod-ucts are exempt from sanctions list, still can have significant effect on access to health care services. Therefore using economic sanctions as a cruel strategy can directly and indirectly threaten public health situation. While world public opinions criti-cize the humanity and public health effects of eco-nomic sanctions, still sanctions have been used as a popular policy. However knowledge about the health effects of economic sanctions is limit and still there are some important questions: How much is the impact of economic sanctions on health? What are its long-term and short-term effects on public health? What groups of people are at more risk this situation? Answering to above questions needs more research and attention in scientific society.

کلمات کلیدی:
Economic sanctions, Public health, health services accessibility

صفحه اختصاصی مقاله و دریافت فایل کامل: https://civilica.com/doc/443703/