استفاده از گاز طبیعی مایع (LNG) به عنوان سوخت جایگزین کشتی ها و بررسی محدودیت ها و ملاحظات قانونی به همراه ارزیابی اقتصادی و زیست محیطی آن

سال انتشار: 1399
نوع سند: مقاله ژورنالی
زبان: فارسی
مشاهده: 149

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شناسه ملی سند علمی:

JR_ENERGY-10-4_004

تاریخ نمایه سازی: 30 آبان 1401

چکیده مقاله:

انرژی، محیط زیست و اقتصاد، سه جزء اصلی از زنجیر به هم پیوسته ای هستند که همواره در ارتباط با یکدیگر، تحلیل و بررسی می شوند. ازاین رو، تعیین جایگزینی مناسب برای سوخت ها که الزامات تامین انرژی را برآورده کند و از طرفی بتواند قیمت را کاهش دهد و آلودگی کمتری ایجاد کند، نیازمند بررسی دقیق سوخت های موجود و تحلیل قوت ها، ضعف ها، فرصت ها و تهدیدهای آن را دارد. در این مقاله، مطالعه کاملی در خصوص جنبه های اقتصادی و زیست محیطی گاز طبیعی مایع به عنوان سوخت جایگزین برای کشتی ها با تمرکز بر کدها، استانداردها، قواعد، محدودیت ها و راهکارهایی که برای ایجاد تعادل بین بازار و صنعت لازم است، ارائه شده است. مشخصات متفاوت سوخت گاز طبیعی مایع با سوخت های دیگر مقایسه و نشان داده شده که این سوخت به مراتب آلودگی کمتری تولید می کند و مزایای بسیار بیشتری در سطح منطقه ای و جهانی دارد.

کلیدواژه ها:

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ، Marine Fuel ، Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) ، Marine Gas Oil (MGO) ، Marine Diesel Oil (MDO) ، International Maritime Organization (IMO). ، گاز طبیعی مایع ، سوخت کشتی ، سوخت سنگین ، سوخت گاز کشتی ، سوخت گازوئیل کشتی ، سازمان جهانی دریانوردی.

نویسندگان

محمدرضا سالارکیا

Facultyof Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, I.R.Iran

سعید گلابی

Facultyof Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, I.R.Iran

مراجع و منابع این مقاله:

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  • Sharafian, O., Talebian, H., Blomerus, P., Herrer, O. and Mérida, ...
  • BP statistical review of world Energy. ۶۷th edition. 〈https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy/oil/oil-prices.html 〉, ...
  • American Petroleum Institute (API) Version ۱.۰, "Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ...
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  • Pittock, A.B., "Climate change: turning up the heat", Routledge, ۲۰۱۷ ...
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  • Corbett, J.J., "Marine Transportation and Energy Use", In: Cutler, J.C. ...
  • Ripple, R.D., "U.S. Natural Gas (LNG) Export: Opportunities and challenges", ...
  • IGU, "۲۰۱۶ World Energy Report", International Gas Union, ۲۰۱۶ ...
  • Maznic, S., "Fuel prices and impact on LNG prices", SUND ...
  • 〈http://www.lnginbalticseaports.com/assets/files/do_pobrania/Baltic_Ports_LNG_Forum/Sund_Energy.pdf〉 pp. ۵, ۲۰۱۵ ...
  • "Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts", U.S. Department of ...
  • The International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers (GIIGNL). The ...
  • 〈https://giignl.org/sites/default/files/PUBLIC_AREA/Publications/giignl_۲۰۱۷_report_۰.pdf〉, ۲۰۱۶ ...
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  • Dag, A.S., "LNG- A Cost Effective Fuel Option? Drivers, Status ...
  • Snud, K. and Whitefield, A., "Gas prices today and going ...
  • Van Den Broek, M., Berghout, N. and Rubin, E.S., "The ...
  • Chandra, V., "Fundamentals of Natural Gas: An International Perspective", Tulsa, ...
  • Vyas, N., "A Techno-economic Study of Liquefied Natural Gas Transportation: ...
  • Imran, M., Yasmeen, T., Ijaz, M., Farooq, M. and Wakeel, ...
  • Sharafian, O., Talebian, H., Blomerus, P., Herrer, O. and Mérida, ...
  • BP statistical review of world Energy. ۶۷th edition. 〈https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy/oil/oil-prices.html 〉, ...
  • American Petroleum Institute (API) Version ۱.۰, "Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ...
  • International Gas Union, "LNG as Fuel", In: Proceedings of the ...
  • Baumgart, M. and Halvard, B.O., "LNG-fueled Vessels in the Norwegian ...
  • Germanischer Lloyd (GL), "Costs and Benefits of LNG as Ship ...
  • Delgado, O. and Muncrief, R., "Assessment of Heavy-duty Natural Gas ...
  • Vermeulen, R., Verbeek, R., Goethem, S.V. and Smokers, R., "Emissions ...
  • Iden, M.E., "Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a Freight Railroad ...
  • Dunn, M.E. and LeBlanc, V.N., "Two Engine System with a ...
  • Fevre, C.N.L., "A Review of Demand Prospects for LNG as ...
  • Wang, S. and Notteboom. T., "The Adoption of Liquefied Natural ...
  • DNV-GL. "LNG as Ship Fuel: The Future -Today", 〈https://www.dnvgl.com/maritime/lng/ships.html〉, ۲۰۱۸ ...
  • Jafarzadeh, S., Paltrinieri, N., Utne, I.B. and Ellingsen, H., "LNG-fuelled ...
  • Yoon, B., Shin, J. and Lee, S., "Technology Assessment Model ...
  • Roy, B. and Comer, B., "Alternatives to Heavy Fuel Oil ...
  • Schinas, O. and Butler, M., "Feasibility and Commercial Considerations of ...
  • Thomson, H., Corbett, J.J. and Winebrake, J.J., "Natural Gas as ...
  • Zahid, U., An, J., Lee, U. and Han, C., "Techno-Economic ...
  • Eyring, V., Isaksen, I.S.A., Berntsen, T., Collins, W.J., Corbett, J.J., ...
  • Yoo, B.Y., "Economic Assessment of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) as ...
  • Nardon, L., Techno-economic assessment of CO۲ transport by ship. A ...
  • Skagestad, R., Eldrup, N., Hansen, H.R., Stefan, B., Mathisen, A., ...
  • Schinas, O. and Stefanakos, C., "The cost of SOx limits ...
  • Fridell, E., Steen, E. and Peterson, K., "Primary Particles in ...
  • Winnes, H. and Fridell, E., "Particle Emissions from Ships: Dependence ...
  • Brynolf, S., Fridell, E. and Andersson, K., "Environmental Assessment of ...
  • Bengtsson, S., Andersson, K., Ellis, J., Haraldsson, L., Ramne, B. ...
  • Bengtsson., S, Andersson, K. and Fridell, E., "A Comparative Life ...
  • DNV-GL. "News: China Introduces Sulphur Requirements for Marine Fuels" (REV), ...
  • Semolinos, P., Olsen, G. and Giacosa, A., "LNG as Marine ...
  • Hsiang, S., Kopp, R., Jina, A., Rising, J., Delgado, M., ...
  • Pittock, A.B., "Climate change: turning up the heat", Routledge, ۲۰۱۷ ...
  • Global greenhouse gas emissions data. US Environ. Prot. Agency ...
  • 〈https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data〉, ۲۰۱۶ ...
  • MARPOL. International Convention for the Prevention of pollution from Ships ...
  • 〈http://www.mar.ist.utl.pt/mventura/Projecto-Navios-I/IMO Conventions%۲۰%۲۸copies%۲۹/MARPOL.pdf〉, Version ۹.۴, ۲۰۰۵ ...
  • Kalli, J., Karvonen, T. and Makkonen, T., "Sulphur Content in ...
  • Winerbrake, J.J., Corbett, J.J. and Yuska, D., "Methane Emissions from ...
  • International Maritime Organization (IMO), "Gas and Low-flashpoint Fuels Code Adopted ...
  • International Maritime Organization (IMO), "Resolution A.۹۶۳ (۲۳), IMO Policies and ...
  • International Maritime Organization (IMO), MPEC/Circ.۴۷۱, "Interim Guidelines for Voluntary Ship ...
  • International Maritime Organization (IMO), MEPC ۶۵/INF.۱۰, "Air Pollution and Energy ...
  • Danish Maritime Authority, "North European LNG Infrastructure Project Full Report, ...
  • Adamchak, F., Amokeye, A., "LNG as Marine Fuel", LNG ۱۷ ...
  • European Commission. "Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area- Towards ...
  • Burel, F., Taccani, R. and Zuliani, N., "Improving Sustainability of ...
  • Raptis, S., "Natural Gas in Ship, Costs/benefits of LNG Versus ...
  • Chiba, M.M., "LNG Transfer Systems for Bunker Ships", Gastech exhibition ...
  • ISO/TC ۶۷, ISO/DTS ۱۸۶۸۳, "Guidelines for Systems and Installations for ...
  • Zetterdahl, M., "Particle Emissions from Ships, Measurements on Exhausts from ...
  • 〈http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/۲۳۵۴۰۷/۲۳۵۴۰۷.pdf〉, ۲۰۱۶ ...
  • ISO ۸۲۱۷, "Fuel Standard for marine distillate fuels", ۲۰۱۷ ...
  • Algell, J., Bakosch, A. and Forsman, B., "Feasibility study on ...
  • Vermeire, M.B., "Everything you need to know about marine fuels", ...
  • 〈https://www.chevronmarineproducts.com/content/dam/chevron-marine/Brochures/Chevron_EverythingYouNeedToKnowAboutFuels_v۳_۱a_DESKTOP.pdf〉, pp. ۸-۹, ۲۰۱۲ ...
  • DNV, Norwegian Maritime Directorate and Environmental Information Portal for Maritime ...
  • Lowell, D., Bradley, M.J., Wang, H. and Lutsey, N., "Assessment ...
  • Ansell, D.V., Dicks, B., Guenette, C.C., Moller, T.H., Santner, R.S. ...
  • Herdzik, J., "LNG as a Marine fuel- Possibilities and Problems", ...
  • Corbett, J.J., "Marine Transportation and Energy Use", In: Cutler, J.C. ...
  • Ripple, R.D., "U.S. Natural Gas (LNG) Export: Opportunities and challenges", ...
  • IGU, "۲۰۱۶ World Energy Report", International Gas Union, ۲۰۱۶ ...
  • Maznic, S., "Fuel prices and impact on LNG prices", SUND ...
  • 〈http://www.lnginbalticseaports.com/assets/files/do_pobrania/Baltic_Ports_LNG_Forum/Sund_Energy.pdf〉 pp. ۵, ۲۰۱۵ ...
  • "Liquefied Natural Gas: Understanding the Basic Facts", U.S. Department of ...
  • The International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers (GIIGNL). The ...
  • 〈https://giignl.org/sites/default/files/PUBLIC_AREA/Publications/giignl_۲۰۱۷_report_۰.pdf〉, ۲۰۱۶ ...
  • Sames, P.C., Clausen, N.B. and Anderson, M.L., "Costs and Benefits ...
  • 〈https://marine.mandieselturbo.com/docs/librariesprovider۶/technical-papers/costs-and-benefits-of-lng.pdf?sfvrsn=۱۸〉, ۲۰۱۱ ...
  • Dag, A.S., "LNG- A Cost Effective Fuel Option? Drivers, Status ...
  • Snud, K. and Whitefield, A., "Gas prices today and going ...
  • نمایش کامل مراجع